Lexique

Defining Primary Prevention

Defining Primary Prevention

Prevention is “all measures to avoid or reduce the number and severity of illness, accident and disability” (World Health Organization, 1948). It brings together all the actions, attitudes and behaviors that tend to avoid the occurrence of a disease or a health problem and to maintain or improve health. “Primary prevention is defined as the set of measures intended to reduce the incidence of disease, thereby reducing the occurrence of new cases or delay the age of onset” (World Health Organization, 1948 ). At the general population, this type of prevention takes into account individual risk behaviors and social and environmental risks. By acting upstream prevention this prevents or delays the onset of a disease or medical condition. In particular, it uses information from the population, health education, nutrition and improving the environment (World Health Organization, 1984). This prevention requires initially identified with an acceptable level of certainty, the factors that may affect the incidence of disease. Research distinguish risk factors and protective factors.

Definitions

An American commission on chronic illness proposed in 1957 one of the first definition of prevention in the field of health “all measures to avoid or reduce the number and severity of illness, accident and disability” (Commission on Chronic Illness, 1957). To consider all forms of action to prevent, the WHO to distinguish three categories since 1984 depending on when preventive action is proposed, (1) primary prevention that attempts to avoid occurrence of a disease or health problem, (2) secondary prevention, which aims to halt or delay the progression of a disease, or to reduce the risk of relapse and chronicity and (3) prevention service that occurs after the onset of the disease, which tends to reduce the damage caused by the disease, relapse, recurrence, disability. If other definitions exist in the literature (Bourdillon, 2006; Trivalle, 2002), that of the WHO from 1984 is the most widely accepted.

Public and specific modes of Action

Primary prevention is aimed at (unrecognized patients) “healthy” subjects without disability or life in prison. Secondary prevention targets people is declared sick, disabled or incarcerated or in the process of becoming (eg smokers at risk of cancer people). Tertiary prevention is for people “officially” sick, disabled or incarcerated. The three areas of prevention require more education and population-specific intervention methods in primary prevention, therapy and more individualized in tertiary prevention.


The general message

The old adage “prevention is better than cure” is back in fashion in the West. Alas, it’s not because we know that we do, even if it is a prerequisite. Blog in Health recommends the website of the French National Institute for Prevention and Health Education.

What it means for Health Professionals

Health professionals are encouraged to visit the website of the National Institute for Prevention and Health Education (INPES). The site has a wide range of advice and information resources on primary prevention activities.

What it means for Researchers

To evaluate the effectiveness of a primary prevention is complicated and cumbersome. This scientific approach requires intervention research a large number of participants and long follow-up.

What it means for Policymakers

By acting upstream, primary prevention prevents or delays the onset of a disease or health problem. In particular, it uses information from the population, health education, nutrition and environmental improvement (Flageolet, 2008).


Reference

Commission on Chronic Illness (1957). Chronic illness in the United States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Flageolet A (2008). Rapport de mission au profit du gouvernement relative aux disparités territoriales des politiques de prévention sanitaire. Paris: Ministère de la Santé, de la Jeunesse et des Sport et de la Vie Associative.

Haute Autorité de Santé (2011). Développement de la prescription de thérapeutiques non médicamenteuses validées. Paris: HAS Edition.

World Health Organization (1984). Glossaire de la série «santé pour tous». Genève: OMS Editions.

Trivalle, C. (2002). Gérontologie préventive. Paris: Masson.


Official Reports

Cour des Comptes (2011). Rapport sur la Prévention sanitaire de la Cour des Comptes à l’Assemblée Nationale. Paris: Assemblée Nationale.

European Chronic Disease Alliance (2010). A unified prevention approach: The case for urgent political action to reduce the social and economic burden of chronic disease through prevention. Brussels: Main European Medical Society.

European Commission (2013). Mental health Systems in the European Union Member States, Status of Mental Health in Populations and Benefits to be Expected from Investments into Mental Health European profile of prevention and promotion of mental health. Brussels: European Commission Editions.

European Union (2013). Economic analysis of workplace mental health promotion and mental disorder prevention programmes and of their potential contribution to EU health, social and economic policy objectives. Brussels: European Union Editions.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2011). Evidence-based methodologies for public health: How to assess the best available evidence when time is limited and there is lack of sound evidence. Stockholm: ECDC.

French National Academy of Medicine (2013). La Culture de prévention en santé: des questions fondamentales, report managed by Pr. Claude Dreux. Paris: Académie de Médecine.

Haut Conseil de la Santé Publique (2009). La prise en charge et la protection sociale des personnes atteintes de maladie chronique. Paris: HCSP.

Haut Conseil de la Santé Publique (2013). Évaluation du plan pour l’amélioration de la qualité de vie des personnes atteintes de maladies chroniques 2007-2011. Paris: HCSP.

Haute Autorité de Santé (2011). Développement de la prescription de thérapeutiques non médicamenteuses validées. Paris: HAS.

Institut National de Prévention et d’Education pour la Santé (2009). Agences Régionales de Santé: Promotion, prévention et programmes de santé, rapport dirigé par le Pr. François Bourdillon. Paris: Editions Sante Publique France.

Institut National de Prévention et d’Education pour la Santé (2010). Prospective santé 2030-prévention 2010. Paris: Editions Sante Publique France.

Institut National de Prévention et d’Education pour la Santé (2010). Education thérapeutique du patient. Paris: Editions Sante Publique France.

International Association of National Public Health Institutes (2011). National Public Health Institutes: European perspective. Brussels: Juvenes Print – Tampere University Print.

Ministère de la Santé (2006). Plan d’amélioration de la prise en charge de la douleur (2006-2010). Paris: Ministère de la Santé.

Ministère de la Santé (2007). Plan National Bien Vieillir (2007-2009). Paris: Ministère de la Santé.

Ministère de la Santé (2007). Plan pour l’amélioration de la qualité de vie des personnes atteintes de maladies chroniques et des Solidarités (2007-2011). Paris: Ministère de la Santé.

Ministère de la Santé (2008). Plan Santé des jeunes 2008-2010. Paris: Ministère de la Santé.

Ministère de la Santé (2008). Plan Alzheimer et maladies apparentées (2008-2012). Paris: Ministère de la Santé.

Ministre de la Santé (2008). Mission au profit du gouvernement relative aux disparités territoriales des politiques de prévention sanitaire. Paris: Ministère de la Santé.

Ministère de la Santé (2010). Plan National Maladies Rares (2011-2014). Paris: Ministère de la Santé.

Ministère de la Santé (2014). Les comptes nationaux de la santé en 2013, rapport dirigé par C. Zaidman, M.-A. Le Garrec et M. Bouvet. Paris: DREES.

Ministère de la Santé (2011). L’état de santé de la population en France. Suivi des objectifs annexés à la loi de santé publique, rapport dirigé par S. Danet. Paris: DREES.

Ministère de la Santé (2011). Programme National Nutrition Santé (2011-2015). Paris: Ministère de la Santé.

Ministère de la Santé (2013). Feuille de route de la Stratégie Nationale de Santé. Paris: Ministère de la Santé.

Ministère de la Santé (2014). Plan Cancer III 2014-2019. Paris: Ministère de la Santé.

Ministère des Sports (2013). Dispositifs d’activités physiques et sportives en direction des âgés, rapport dirigé par D. Rivière. Paris: Ministère de la Jeunesse et des Sports.

Ministère des Solidarités et de la Santé (2018). Plan Priorité Prévention: Rester en bonne santé toute sa vie. Paris: Ministère des Solidarités et de la Santé.

World Health Organization(1986). La charte d’Ottawa. Geneva: WHO Editions.

World Health Organization (2004). A strategy to prevent chronic disease in Europe: A focus on public health action. The CINDI vision. Geneva: WHO Editions.

World Health Organization (2006). Prévention des maladies chroniques: un investissement vital. Geneva: WHO Editions.

World Health Organization (2006). Gaining health: The European Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. Copenhagen: WHO Editions.

World Health Organization (2008). Action plan for the global strategy for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (2008-2013). Prevent and control cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes. Geneva: WHO Editions.

World Health Organization (2013). Prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases in the European Region: a progress report. Copenhagen: WHO Editions.

World Health Organization (2014). Note d’orientation sur la prévention des maladies chronique. Geneva: WHO Editions.


To reference this Blog en Sante © article.

Ninot G (2018). Definition of primary prevention. Blog en Sante, L13.

© Copyright 2018 Grégory Ninot. All rights reserved.