A randomized controlled trial of English Beavers and colleagues, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society in 2013, evaluates the efficacy over 18 months of physical activity and promoting a dietary weight loss on biomarkers inflammation in overweight people and obese with cardiovascular risk. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of the combined program “exercise + dietary” on biomarkers of inflammation compared to groups without the intervention or just enjoying physical activity.
The Study Rationale
Inflammation called low grade and also known as chronic inflammation or circulating inflammation. This form of inflammation showed no clinical signs, it is not felt by the patient. It is associated with aging or fat overload. This chronic inflammation is the breeding ground for a variety of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as myocardial infarction, type 2 diabetes, stroke (stroke). Thus, to reduce this chronic inflammation is to reduce the risk of disease and disability for thousands of people and improve their chance to live with a good quality of life.
Basic research in animals and humans shows that physical activity practiced regularly is effective to decrease the rate of blood inflammatory markers. This result is shown regardless of the level of body mass index. Other experimental studies show that a diet limiting intake of sugar and fat the same effect. So the question this clinical study is to find out what physical activity or diet, or their association, is most effective in reducing levels of inflammatory markers in people at risk.
What are the anti-inflammatory benefits of physical activity intervention alone compared to those of an intervention combining physical activity and dietary biomarker of inflammation?
The randomized controlled trial of Beavers and colleagues published in 2013 compared the benefits of a physical activity program adapted in relation to the same program combined with a diet aimed to weight loss in elderly people with cardiovascular disease risk. The study focused on 288 patients aged 60-79 years. The study included participants whose body mass index is greater than 28 kg / m2 (corresponding to a moderate overweight or obesity, high) and less than 40 kg / m2 (corresponding to a morbid obesity). Participants were asked to report impaired mobility, a sedentary lifestyle, a recent cardiovascular event or a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome.
Participants were randomly placed either in the group receiving the intervention in physical activity or in the group receiving the intervention combining the same exercise program to a dietary regime or in the control group receiving advice health related successful aging.
The Non-Pharmacological Intervention (NPI) assessed
The NPI was to conduct regular physical activity group. It combined the walk walking sessions and sessions targeting behavior change with regard to daily physical activity (eg, taking the stairs instead of the elevator whenever possible). 48 sessions in total were carried out. During the first six months (intensive phase), 3 sessions of 90 minutes 1 group and individual 30-minute session per month were realized. Participants were encouraged to walk 30 minutes for 5 days a week to at least 150 minutes a week endurance exercise (cycling, walking). During the following 12 months (maintenance phase), frequency of contact was reduced at the rate of a group session and a phone contact per month.
The NPI combining physical activity and dietary regimen included physical activity program described above combined with a diet regime for weight loss. The purpose of this scheme was to reduce calorie intake to promote weight loss of 0.3 kg per week for the first six months. The total weight loss was set between 7% and 10% compared to baseline body weight calculated before the start of the intervention. The objective of the maintenance phase was to maintain body weight reached late in the first phase.
The results show that certain levels of inflammatory biomarkers such as Leptin and IL-6 are significantly lower in the group receiving the intervention combined with the other two groups one year after surgery.
The combined efforts allowed an average loss of 8.5% by weight (corresponding to an average of 8 kg) while the other two groups did not experience any change.
Other inflammatory markers did not change regardless of the group as CRP, IL-8, and the TNF1 adiponectin.
What it means for Patients
A 6-month regime for weight loss of 7% to 10% combined with a supervised program of physical activities adapted reduces chronic inflammation group of people over age 60 are overweight or obese at the end of the program and one year later. These people and see their decreased risk of having cardiovascular disease.
What it means for Healthcare Professionals
Unlike a program of education to health or a supervised program of physical activity alone, a 6-month regime for weight loss of 7% to 10% combined with a supervised program of adapted physical activities focused on endurance and practiced in groups reduced the rate of inflammatory biomarkers (IL6, Leptin) of people over age 60 are overweight or obese at the end of the program and one year after. These people and see their decreased risk of having cardiovascular disease.
What it means for Researchers
A dietary regimen associated with a physical endurance activities program is better than a program of physical activities or education in improving the circulating inflammatory profile. The question remains whether diet alone can have the same effect.
What it means for Policymakers
A dietary targeting weight loss of 7 to 10% associated with a supervised program adapted physical activities is a real anti-inflammatory effects in overweight people over 60 years. Their risk of cardiovascular disease is reduced.
Beavers KM, Ambrosius WT, Nicklas BJ, Rejeski WJ (2013). Independent and combined effects of physical activity and weight loss on inflammatory biomarkers in overweight and obese older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 61, 1089-1094.
Related articles on Blog en Sante ©
Same non-pharmacological intervention
To reference this Blog en Sante © article.
Ninot G (2016). Anti-Inflammatory Effect of a Diet Associated with Physical Activity. Blog en Sante, A73.
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